Introduction to web security.

01: know recent security trends

Learn about recent security trends. Here’s an overview of SQL injection and cross site scripting (XSS), which is famous as a web site attack technique.

Please note that the contents of the attack of this lesson will become a crime if it is done to an external site.

Injection: injecting an unintended code into the system and causing it to execute: injection an unintended SQL code in injection

(see example) stealing the value of a database that cannot be referenced normally or destroying or tampering data

Cross site scripting: embedding an unintended script on the web site in some way into the site to cause the user’s browser to run the script

A malicious script sends the page information to a third party site when the user opens a page to display personal information in the site

1. Stealing a user password from a demo page, causing an illegal SQL to be executed, stealing other users’ data from the database

(2) to prevent the SQL injection of user input to prevent the SQL input from executing each method


Article: How to prevent Cross Site Scripting (XSS attacks) in a …

Specific to WebSpeed:
The cross site scripting (XSS) needs to be prevented at the application code level.The part of the request where the injection usually takes place is in the REQUEST_URI, or only in QUERY_STRING (part in request_uri after the "?" character).What you could do is to verify on each request that the content is properly url-encoded and that there are no "" "" "script" elements in there.
In addition, any URL that the users may enter into the system themselves should be validated in the same way to prevent attacks originating from within the environment.
It’s recommended that the URLs are validated both on the application code level and at the webserver/WebSpeed messenger level. Validating on multiple levels helps guard against attacks if one of the components is misconfigured or compromised.
Example: A load-balanced environment has multiple webservers with Messenger configuration duplicated across multiple nodes. One node missed a software update and has a vulnerability at the webserver side. Transaction Server/WebSpeed Broker side validation will still avoid cross-site scripting if an attempt passes the this vulnerability.


Common ways and test methods of SQL injection attack

This article mainly aims at the meaning of SQL injection, and how to conduct SQL injection and how to prevent SQL injection to let small partners have an understanding. The applicable people are mainly testers. Knowing how to inject SQL can help us test the SQL attack vulnerability of login and release modules. As for how to prevent SQL injection, it should be something we should know by development. But as a great test, understanding the principle can help us understand the cause of the bug more thoroughly. OK, there’s not much to say , get to the point~

How to understand SQL injection (attack)?

SQL injection is an attack technique that adds SQL code to input parameters and passes it to the server for parsing and execution.

SQL injection attack is a kind of behavior that input parameters are unfiltered, then directly spliced into SQL statements for parsing, and the execution is unexpected. It is called SQL injection attack.

How is SQL injection generated?

1) Web developers cannot guarantee that all input has been filtered

3) The database is not configured for security

How to attack SQL injection?

Taking PHP programming language and MySQL database as examples, this paper introduces the construction skills and methods of SQL injection attack

1. Digital injection

In the browser address bar, enter: learn. Me / SQL / article. PHP? Id = 1, which is a get interface. Sending this request is equivalent to calling a query statement:

$sql = "SELECT * FROM article WHERE id =",$id

Normally, an article with id = 1 should be returned. Then, if you enter: Id = – 1 or 1 = 1 in the browser address bar, this is a SQL injection attack, and you may return information about all articles. Why is that?

This is because id = – 1 is always false, 1 = 1 is always true, and all the where statements are always true, so the where condition is equivalent to not adding the where condition, so the query result is equivalent to the content of the whole table

2. String injection

There is a user login scenario: the login interface includes the user name and password input box, and the submit button. Enter user name and password, submit.

This is a post request. When logging in, call the interface, first connect to the database, and then verify the user name and password carried in the post request parameters in the background, that is, the SQL query process. Assuming that the correct user name and password are user and pwd123, entering the correct user name and password and submitting are equivalent to calling the following SQL statement:

SELECT * FROM user WHERE username = 'user' ADN password = 'pwd123'

Because the user name and password are strings, the SQL injection method changes the data carried by parameters into strings annotated in MySQL. There are two ways to comment in MySQL:

1) All strings after ‘×’: are treated as comments

User name input: user ‘ා (single quotation mark closes the single quotation mark on the left of user), password input at will, such as: 111, and then click Submit button. Equivalent to SQL statement:

SELECT * FROM user WHERE username = 'user'#'ADN password = '111'

‘Chen’ has been commented out, which is equivalent to:

SELECT * FROM user WHERE username = 'user'

2) ‘–‘ (– followed by a space): strings following ‘–‘ are treated as comments

User name input: user ‘– (note — there is a space after it, single quotation marks close the single quotation marks on the left of user), password input at will, such as: 111, and then click Submit button. Equivalent to SQL statement:

SELECT * FROM user WHERE username = 'user'-- 'AND password = '111'

SELECT * FROM user WHERE username = ‘user’– ‘AND password = ‘1111’

‘–‘ is commented out, which is equivalent to:

SELECT * FROM user WHERE username = 'user'

Therefore, it is very dangerous to enter a wrong password or to log in to an account with the user name of ‘user’ without entering a password.

How to prevent SQL injection?

This is a problem that developers should think about. As testers, they can find out how to prevent SQL injection and locate the cause of the bug when finding the injection attack bug.

1) Strictly check the type and format of input variables

For integer parameter, add judgment condition: cannot be empty, parameter type must be number

For string parameters, regular expressions can be used for filtering: for example, string must be in the range of [0-9a-zA-Z]

2) Filtering and escaping special characters

Escape the special characters such as’, ", \ before the variable username. For example, the addslashes () function in PHP escapes the username parameter

3) Using the precompile mechanism of MySQL

The template of SQL statement (variables are occupied by placeholders) is sent to MySQL server. MySQL server compiles the template of SQL statement. After compiling, the corresponding index is optimized according to the optimization analysis of the statement. When the parameters are finally bound, the corresponding parameters are transmitted to MySQL server for direct execution, which saves SQL query time and MySQL server’s In addition, it can prevent SQL injection. How to prevent SQL injection? In fact, when the bound parameters are transferred to the MySQL server, the MySQL server compiles the parameters, that is, in the process of filling in the corresponding placeholders, and does the escape operation.


BOT validation to exercise new SQL injection.

A leading company in the security solution field, the company’s racks (head office: Tokyo Minato ward, President of the president, Saito Saito, LAC), is an urgent warning report from the Institute of computer security, cyber Research Institute It opened.

According to the report, it has been reported that the web site administrator has confirmed a bot to operate a new SQL injection attack that attacks the web site administrators in an unlikely manner. Also, this new SQL injection attack has been detected at the security operation center JSOC (jissok) of the rack since early September 30, and the web site that has suffered the actual damage was confirmed, and this report was published for the purpose of wide attention.

This report describes the characteristics of the attack, the effect of the attack, and the countermeasures. Because it is an attack that attacks to the general user, I strongly hope that the web server administrator of the organization and the LAN administrator are actually damaged in accordance with the contents of the report, and take the quick response.

Below is a summary of the report.

Attack features

  • Some IDS / IPS will not be detected because cookies in the web server log contain attacks that are unlikely to be marked on the web server log, because the cookie contains an attack containing cookies in SQL injection attacks
  • There is a case that does not detect IDS / IPS because there is a technique to avoid the IDS / IPS detection function on the attack itself

Attack technique

SQL injection emits an illegal script in the web site. The attack uses the get and post methods and contains the contents of the attack in the portion of the URI. However, from September 30, this attack technique evolved and confirmed that SQL injection attacks on cookie values. As a result, the current IDS / IPS detection pattern is out of sight and an undetectable event occurs. In addition, there is a method to avoid detection function in attack contents, and it is difficult to detect it further.

This attack is done against the value of cookie, and it is likely that the usual web server log does not contain the content of the attack.

Information about the IP address

The following IP address has been confirmed. It is likely that the attack will continue in the future.

IP address (China) (China)

* never access the IP address.

Attack target

Web applications created by ASP (active server pages) have SQL injection vulnerabilities. Other environments may also be attacked

Impact by attack

The content of the database is tampered over a web application and an invalid script is embedded. Because the web site that contains the content contains an invalid script, the referenced user will be guided to the unauthorized web site before noticing.

Since malicious web sites have multiple attack code targeting vulnerabilities of client applications, it is likely that the vulnerability of the client application will cause malware to be downloaded.

Recommended measures

< web site administrator >

  • Although there is a high possibility that it will not remain in the access log due to the attack contained in the cookie, it is confirmed that the web site log is checked and the access from the IP address has not occurred
  • Check the entire database and check if the link to the unauthorized web site (http: / / drmyy. CN) is not embedded.
  • Database security for database sites
  • Adding cookies logging settings to the web server
  • Verify security vulnerabilities in public applications by security diagnostics
  • Deny firewall or web server access from the attacker IP address ( and (never access this IP address)

In house LAN Administrator

  • Verify that the client application is the latest version
  • Check that there is no web access to (which will never access this IP address), including the proxy log used by the client
  • Setting up a firewall or proxy server denies access from within the office to

Recently, these illegal web sites have a shorter life span and are likely to relocate to another web site. If you have access to the relevant web site from the host of the internal network, it may be transferred from the web server that has been damaged by the attack to the illegal web site, and the malicious program may be executed on the client computer.

The urgent caution report published in this release can be seen from the following web page.

Emergency caution report – confirmation of BOT to use new SQL injection

More than


Swiftmailer, phpmailer and zendmail are vulnerable to rce

Swiftmailer, phpmailer, and zendmail are vulnerable to rce. Recently, a security research expert disclosed a serious vulnerability in the open source PHP code base (the popular PHP code base for sending e-mail). This remote code execution vulnerability may allow remote attackers to invade web applications and execute arbitrary code in web servers.

Remote code execution (RCE) vulnerability in phpmailer

The vulnerability (cve-2016-10033) was found by a Polish security expert named Dawid golunski. The vulnerability exists in phpmailer, and more than 9 million users around the world are using this popular open source PHP code base. According to the information disclosed by phpmailer project team, this vulnerability has been fixed in phpmailer v5.2.18.

Of course, as a hacker, golunski will not easily stop, so he began to try to bypass the fix in the new version of phpmailer, but in the process of his attempt, he found a new vulnerability (cve-2016-10045). It should be noted that this vulnerability is even more serious than the previous one (cve-2016-10033). The vulnerability cve-2016-10045 will not only affect millions of websites, but also put many popular open source web applications and web frameworks at risk of remote code execution attacks, such as WordPress, Drupal, 1crm, SugarCRM, Yii and Joomla.

Developers of phpmailer have finally completely fixed this vulnerability in v5.2.20. Before that, all versions of phpmailer will be affected by this serious vulnerability. Therefore, we strongly recommend that webmasters and developers update their version of phpmailer immediately.

In addition to this vulnerability, golunski also reported a very similar vulnerability in two other PHP mail code bases, swiftmailer and zendmail, which also allows attackers to remotely execute code against the target web application.

Remote code execution (RCE) vulnerability in swiftmailer

Swiftmailer is also a very popular open-source PHP code base, which is used by many open-source projects, including many popular PHP open-source frameworks, such as yii2, laravel and symfony, all use swiftmailer to send e-mail (via SMTP).

As in phpmailer, attackers can exploit this vulnerability in swiftmailer by the same technical means (cve-2016-10074). Specifically, an attacker can launch an attack against the website components that use the swiftmailer class. These web components include contact forms, registration forms, password reset emails, and so on.

Using this vulnerability, an attacker can remotely execute arbitrary code in the target web server, which will lead to the attacker to further gain access to the network server hosting the target web application.

This vulnerability in swiftmailer will affect all versions of swiftmailer, including its just released version of 5.4.5-dev. Golunski has submitted the detailed information about the vulnerability to the swiftmailer development team, and the relevant technical personnel are in a hurry to fix the vulnerability. We believe that they will release the latest fix soon.

The swiftmailer team wrote on the GitHub home page of the project: "there is a serious security vulnerability in the old version of swiftmailer’s mail transport component. If the" from "," returnpath "or" sender "headers come from untrusted sources, then attackers can use these headers to pass arbitrary shell parameters and implement remote code execution." "

Remote code execution (RCE) vulnerability in zendmail

Zendmail is a functional component of the popular PHP programming framework Zend framework, which is currently used by more than 95 million Web sites.

Just as the attacker exploits the vulnerability in phpmailer and swiftmailer, the attacker also exploits the vulnerability in zendmail (cve-2016-10034) to attack websites that use zendmail components, such as contact forms, registration forms, password reset emails, etc.

Using the zendmail component containing this vulnerability, an attacker can implement remote code execution in the target web server and remotely invade the target web application,

Security experts have reported the vulnerability to the zendmail development team, and zendmail developers have fixed the vulnerability and released a new version of zendmail.

In its official blog, Zend mail development team wrote: "in the process of using Zend mail component (Zend \ mail \ transport \ sendmail transport) to send e-mail, attackers can inject arbitrary parameters into the mail component. An attacker can add an extra quote character to the email address to launch the attack. If the web application does not conduct security review on the parameters, the quote character will be parsed as an additional command parameter and trigger a security vulnerability. "

Demo video

Golunski released a PoC video and demonstrated the complete implementation of these three attacks in the video.

Loophole utilization

The security research expert also said that he would publish a security white paper, in which he described in detail the previously undisclosed vulnerability exploitation technologies for the three vulnerabilities.


If you want to make the youth camp of Hanli 2day mobile website

Old camp. The young people are leaving. The young people who left did not come back. It was intended to be the place where high school graduates left, but also increased economic reasons. The young workers who came to the camp looking for work are leaving. The collapse of the shipbuilding industry accelerated this. Of course, although it is a national phenomenon, it is necessary to diagnose the phenomenon and formulate countermeasures. For this purpose, I have set my own mind.

The forum of "young people don’t leave, come to find camp" sponsored by this magazine was held in the local ground evaluation committee on the 26th. On the same day, at the seminar, Zheng Zhongshan, President of uniying YMCA electro optic day, leader of the post policy and youth employment group of uniying municipal office, and Zhao Xianhao, chairman of jinguili, Fengping District Urban Regeneration support center, Enshi center, and uniying Youth Policy Committee participated. On the same day, the main speech of the participants will be transferred to the ground as much as possible.

President of YMCA

Young people leaving is the painful reality of the camp. The biggest reason is that there is no job, and the second is for college. With the collapse of industrial base, entering pingze and other industrial cities is also reducing the capital of the times. We should find a way to overcome it on the basis of cause analysis.

In Tongying, fengpingdong is the area with the most senior citizens, so it is difficult to carry out urban regeneration. Local people should not be stubborn, hoping to make young people more and more crowded.

At present, although the camp wants to come back, there is nothing to do. Those who come back should create their own conditions. Now think about the appearance of the camp, which is the dream of our predecessors. Bamboo forest Bay. As a result of the North xinwan Marie, the sense of nature has been lost. As a result of the development, the difference between the camp and other areas has disappeared.

Although it is also important to introduce young people into the camp, I hope to show my experience in the camp when I return to my hometown. Recently, young people have been gathered in YMCA. They have more qualifications than expected when they read the resume. They are also content to hire young people. There’s a chance.

In the past, businesses, small shops, fragmentary and elderly people chose places that could not be operated, and proposed policies to induce young people to work for income preservation. Jiangyuan road Jiangling has a seaside coffee special area. The coffee shop started by one person has now become a cultural street, holding coffee celebrations.

Wuen shifengping District Urban Regeneration Support Center

Since becoming the center in August last year, the young people who left the camp have returned to the environment of regeneration. I also left the camp at the age of 8 and returned to my hometown this time, so the first result of urban regeneration is my sense of pride and responsibility. At present, 6 urban regeneration undertakings have been launched, including 2 new deal undertakings, 2 new courtyard undertakings and 2 small-scale undertakings.

The cause of urban regeneration is a combination of hardware and software, which is basically the continuous creation of space. As an economic community or youth group, it is very regrettable to introduce career oriented. Although the space created through regeneration is sincere, it can not blindly give up the local people.

We will invest 5 billion yuan in Fengping cave to build Tangshan tree square. At present, the farmland is constructed by the square, and the housing plans to transform 20 economic activity spaces, such as joint stores. The main body of managing 20 spaces should also be 20. Most of Fengping caves are over 50 years old, so it is difficult to fill the space. So I don’t think we can only target the residents of Fengping district. It is hoped that in four years, the operation subject will develop into a cooperative or social enterprise.

Of course, it’s hard to solve everything in the social economy. But like the saying "when the water comes, we need to show the stuffing", education and consulting fees have been set, so we need to actively promote.

This is because of the current situation entrusted by the cooperation group of interpark and Lihua women’s University, so we do not know the details and plans. The LH project interferes with its own budget. However, after the completion of the Commission in 2001, the unified city should be responsible, so it is paying attention. Consideration is being given to how young entrepreneurs and job seekers from other regions can form curricula and educational programmes in a unified environment. If it’s a lifetime education program, there’s no need to organize

What young people want is something pleasant, something interesting. In my opinion, the base of the manufacturing industry is very weak, so we should focus on tourism. Culture and art are also the contents of sightseeing. Focus on tourism to prevent distraction and budget waste

A 30-year-old single staff member of the office organized the show "the good man and the fairy" last year. Why did he go there? "Asked the clerk," the camp can’t just talk about women. " If you are not a hospital nurse, you can’t see women, so you can’t laugh. But I hope there will be more natural activities than hard shows.

Because the young people with CAD qualification want to come to the camp, they apply for the employment center with half a doubt. There is a machine manufacturing company related to aquaculture who has contacted them. I was also shocked, and so was the friend. Tea sets or businessmen and job seekers are very satisfied. There seems to be a lack of publicity.

For the "dynamic" camp that young people are looking for,

Zheng Zhongshan, group leader of youth employment in TONGYING City

In August last year, the basic regulations for youth in Tongying city were formulated and the basic plan was formulated according to them. Next year is the goal. According to the youth policy of TONGYING City, 29 detailed work in 4 fields was promoted. According to the market settlement, the basic plan will be made from 2020 to 2024. Possible work will be put into right and wrong, otherwise it will advance the cause through collusion.

In the camp, the place where the youth live is someone’s home or coffee shop, No. You can’t sit and discuss in that place for a long time. The youth center of TONGYING City, MINGTING, will establish a full national expense (2.6 billion yuan), just today (July 26) design use contract. There are only two departments in the whole country, the unified camp and the Qunshan, that provide full state support, and other places bear the city and road fees.

The biggest problem is that there is no big business. Had to leave the camp. Because there is no suitable major, so into other places, there is no professional enterprise, so can not come to the camp. It is impossible to solve all the problems. Even the youth in the camp, even the youth in the camp through marriage, should not leave the camp. Young people will prepare a small program like the one they hope to work for tomorrow, so that they can feel meaningful together.

"Seoul youth local dispatch policy" is being launched in park Yuen Shun market, Seoul special city. Although living in one side of the room, in order to send away the youth who do not want to go to the place, this is a Seoul local business. In fact, Tong Ying has no charm for the youth other than the sightseeing sports insurance and yacht items. It is also difficult to provide dormitories and manpower management. Although the satellite city near Seoul is OK, the camp seems very tired.

A lot of people say that 6 to 70 water industry and iron industry related work stations are for business and no one inherits them, so they are facing the crisis of closure. Some people say that young people should be selected to invest in that field, and the results of the fact finding show that the occupation they want is the white collar occupation. I have no idea except for the office.

If large enterprises do not support public jobs in the unified management, there are limits. The support of the central government is almost carried out through complicity. If you want to solicit the signing of the enterprise and the lowest stage, but the enterprise has not been unified.

In any case, the special cultural street construction projects such as Suhu in New York will also be carried out in the five-year business plan after the youth work is convened next year. To work for policies that resonate and delight young people.

Zhao Xianhao, director of youth policy

The unified industrial structure is simple. Shipbuilding industry, tourism industry, in which shipbuilding industry collapsed, the difficulties are increasing. Unionization can only be expected if it enters into new growth industries. Camp has the sea and beautiful natural environment, hoping to become the field of connection. Suppose it’s the field of new renewable energy or the field that other cities don’t do. In the field of new renewable energy, North Korea’s industry and leaders can also become the world’s cities.

The real income standard expected by young people is unmarried salary, 2-2.2 million won, and married salary is about 2.5-3 million won. Although there is doubt about the implementation of the youth policy, it has become more active now. From now on, I hope it’s more encouraging than guitar from the beginning.


Fostering the use of renewable energies in the European Union …

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During the last two decades, the use of residential photovoltaic systems (PVs) has been widely promoted by governments through various support mechanisms such as feed-in-tariffs, net-metering, net-billing, etc. These support schemes have developed a secure investment environment, increasing the penetration level of PVs in low-voltage distribution grids. Nonetheless, increased PV integration may introduce several technical problems regarding the secure operation of distribution grids. Battery energy storage (BES) systems can mitigate such challenges, but the high capital cost is one of the most important limiting factors towards the widespread use of these systems. In fact, the financial viability of integrated PV and BES systems under different support schemes remains an open issue. In this paper, the profitability of PV and BES systems is evaluated through an advanced techno-economic model, that provides the optimal size of PV-BES system in terms of net present value, based on the electricity production and consumption profile of the installation, PV and BES systems costs, and electricity charges. The proposed model may be a useful tool for prosumers, grid operators and policy makers, to assess the impact of various incentive policy schemes and different BES operation strategies on the economic viability of PV-BES systems.
This report provides an overview of the next generation of renewable energy policies. It highlights how ongoing changes in renewable energy policy design and breaking down the conventional policy categories and giving rise to innovative policy hybrids.
Following the deregulation of electricity markets, a current challenge of policy makers is to facilitate the transition to a sustainable power system at the highest welfare for society. In this paper we investigate the efficiency of different support schemes, such as a feed-in tariff, a feed-in premium and tradable green certificates, with respect to incentivizing the required investments in renewable generation. We consider a number of generation expansion problems, and formulate stochastic equilibrium models that account for uncertainty in demand and renewable supply, the risk-aversion of investors and the competitiveness of the market. The problem of the policy maker is formulated as a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC) and as a non-linear complementarity problem (NCP) for the feed-in schemes and the certificate market, respectively. Our models are solved for a small illustrative example and a larger case study based on the Danish power system. The results confirm that the main driver for the optimal choice of renewable support scheme is the aversion of power producers towards price and volume risk, while the competitiveness of the market rarely affects such choice.

en We are at an historical crossroads. The latest IPCC report gives dire predictions about potential losses from climate change, ranging from high sea levels to deterioration of agricultural production. Although emissions are still concentrated in the North, the most‐rapid growth of emissions is occurring in the South, suggesting the need for major changes in the trajectory of its economic development. Massive aid flows for climate‐change mitigation and adaptation lack any clear framework. We begin the task by examining the evolution of Central American electricity systems, seeking to explain the exceptional ability of several countries wracked by conflict, weak institutions, and struggling economies to move toward renewable fuels. We use first‐person interviews, government documents and websites, and consultant and expert reports to examine the largely unrecognized achievements. The necessity of finding alternative energy is not in question, but how these countries overcame the financial, technical, and policy challenges should be of great interest and could potentially provide valuable lessons for other countries. Abstract es Estamos en una encrucijada histórica. El último informe IPCC da terribles predicciones sobre altas pérdidas potenciales del cambio climático, que incluyen niveles más altos del mar y un deterioro de la producción agrícola. Mientras que las emisiones todavía se concentran en los países del norte, el más rápido crecimiento de las emisiones se está produciendo en los del sur, lo que sugiere la necesidad de cambios importantes en la trayectoria de su desarrollo económico. Los flujos de ayuda masiva para la mitigación del y adaptación al cambio climático carecen de un marco claro. Comenzamos este ensayo mediante el examen de la evolución de los sistemas de electricidad de América Central, tratando de explicar la capacidad excepcional de algunos de estos países azotados por conflictos, instituciones débiles y economías en problemas, por avanzar hacia el uso de combustibles renovables. Utilizando entrevistas personales, documentos gubernamentales e informes de portales electrónicos, de consultores y expertos, examinamos sus logros en gran parte desconocidos. La necesidad de encontrar alternativas energéticas no está en duda, pero entender cómo estos países superaron los retos financieros, técnicos y de política es de gran interés y podría potencialmente ofrecer lecciones valiosas para otros países.
This chapter discusses both local opposition and local support to renewable energy developments, with particular attention to wind farms and solar power plants. Actors, arguments, and actions are examined and contrasted. It is argued that opposition to renewables has received far more attention from social scientists, even though the success of this sector in several countries can show that support is frequent and widespread. Regarding opposition, the NIMBY hypothesis is discarded and other more complex and multilayered explanations are discussed, such as place attachment, landscape concerns, procedural and distributive justice, and actual impacts of wind and solar farms. Concerning support to renewable energy developments, justifications such as economic benefits (namely financial incentives and employment generation), landscape rehabilitation, and environmental values are explored.
The LCOE is a widespread indicator, which is often used for cost comparisons of renewable energy technologies with energy prices from the grid in order to determine whether or not grid parity has been achieved. In theory and practice it has been alleged that this is the case if the LCOE is lower or equal than the current energy price. If so, such technologies are considered as marketable and therefore it is assumed that they don’t need subsidies any more. However, the application of the “traditional” LCOE formula is not appropriate for such a grid-parity-check and thus can lead to faulty results, policy and investment decisions because it neglects energy price changes over time. Deduced from an NPV formula and exemplified by a sample calculation in this paper it will be shown that an investment can be profitable – in terms of generating a positive NPV – although the traditional LCOE lies above the current price for energy from the grid. And this contradicts the definition of grid parity. We go back to the origin of the problem and present a modification to the traditional LCOE formula, which considers energy price rise and thus allows more accurate LCOE calculations. Keywords grid paritylevelized costs of energylevelized costs of electricityLCOEnet present valueenergy investment appraisalenergy price variation

In conjunction with the European Union (EU) targets, the United Kingdom (UK) Government has introduced a range of mechanisms to foster the development and deployment of low carbon energy technologies and markets. This study focuses on the three main financial incentive schemes to promote renewable energy sector in the UK for electricity, heat and fuel production from renewables, namely feed-in tariff (FiT), Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) and Renewables Obligation Certificate (RoC), considering the fact that optimal policy design depends on effective analyses of the impacts of incentives on the performance of renewable energy systems. The effects of potential changes in these incentive schemes on the economic and environmental performance of bioenergy sector are investigated using an analytical methodology. The methodology integrates fuzzy decision making and multi objective mathematical modelling in the same framework to capture uncertainties in the system parameters as well as economic and environmental sustainability aspects. Computational experiments are performed on bioenergy production using the entire West Midlands Region in the UK as case study region. The results reveal that the changes in incentive policies have a significant impact on the profitability of the supply chain, whereas environmental performance of the supply chain in terms of total GHG emissions is the least affected performance indicator by the changes in the incentive policies.
This paper measures the policy effectiveness of power purchasing agreements, capital grants, tax incentives, preferential loans, and research, development, and demonstrations for photovoltaic (PV) and wind power development in the member countries of the European Union (EU). The empirical findings confirm that the feed-in tariff is more efficient than renewable portfolio standards (RPS) for PV and wind power development, although RPS does have an effect on wind power development. However, the other economic instruments are all inefficient for PV development but are efficient for wind power development, except for tax incentives. Moreover, the economic growth required, serious financial deficits, and dependence on imported energy that discourage PV development are unrelated to wind power development. The energy intensity of the economy will have a negative impact on both PV and wind power development.
Many Feed-in Tariff designs exist. This paper provides a framework to determine the optimal design choice through an efficient allocation of market price risk. Feed-in Tariffs (FiTs) incentivise the deployment of renewable energy technologies by subsidising remuneration and transferring market price risk from investors, through policymakers, to a counterparty. This counterparty is often the electricity consumer. Using Stackelberg game theory, we contextualise the application of different FiT policy designs that efficiently divide market price risk between investors and consumers, conditional on risk preferences and market conditions. Explicit consideration of policymaker/consumer risk burden has not been incorporated in FiT analyses to date. We present a simulation-based modelling framework to carry this out. Through an Irish case study, we find that commonly employed flat-rate FiTs are only optimal when policymaker risk aversion is extremely low whilst constant premium policies are only optimal when investor risk aversion is extremely low. When both policymakers and investors are risk averse, an intermediate division of risk is optimal. We provide evidence to suggest that the contextual application of many FiT structures is suboptimal, assuming both investors and policymakers are at least moderately risk averse. Efficient risk allocation in FiT design choice will be of increasing policy importance as renewables deployment grows.
This paper serves to examine and compare the role of markets and institutions in the adoption of clean technologies (‘cleantech’) in Canada, Germany and the USA. Sustainable innovation and industry growth in cleantech in a particular jurisdiction can take place when there is ongoing market pressure for cleantech and a ‘critical mass’ of private sector, government and academic actors, initiatives and structures that support the widespread adoption and use of cleantech. Employing Webb’s (2005) sustainable governance approach as a base of analysis, it would appear that Canada lacks the density of institutions, instruments, processes and actors needed to create a critical mass to support sustainable cleantech activity in the long-term. In particular, when compared with Germany and the USA, the Canadian approach lacks key federal support and lacks the degree of private sector and civil society (academic) activity in cleantech that can be observed in those jurisdictions.

The Australian Government’s installation of the now defunct carbon price in July 2012, triggered a review of the Renewable Energy (RE) Feed-In Tariff (FiT) policies in the state of Victoria. In this article, concept analysis techniques and mapping software have been used to examine RE FiT design elements and priorities proposed by eighty-six RE investors and FiT stakeholders during the course of the review. The results show that concept analysis and mapping can be used to analyse FiT designs enabling identification of combinations of discrete elements including fixed and variable payment rates, differing levels of market regulation and competition, varying tariff operating periods, and eligibility rules for RE system sizes, development sites and low emissions technologies. In addition, while the economic elements of FiT designs were afforded the highest priority by stakeholders, broader contemporary analysis shows that policy makers and regulators should continue to combine economic, technology, system and administration elements into tariffs that can deliver new RE supplies. Also, the results show that governments may elect to change the combinations of these design elements, introduce other ancillary policy instruments and regulatory mechanisms, and reshape the FiT schemes in order to accommodate significant shifts in public policies.
Prosumers are households that are both producers and consumers of electricity. A prosumer has a grid-connected decentralized production unit and makes two types of exchanges with the grid: energy imports when the local production is insufficient to match the local consumption and energy exports when local production exceeds it. There exists two systems to measure the exchanges: a net metering system that uses a single meter to measure the balance between exports and imports and a net purchasing system that uses two meters to measure separately power exports and imports. Both systems are currently used for residential consumption. We build a model to compare the two metering systems. Under net metering, the price of exports paid to prosumers is implicitly set at the price of the electricity that they import. We show that net metering leads to (1) too many prosumers, (2) a decrease in the bills of prosumers, compensated via a higher bill for traditional consumers, and (3) a lack of incentives to synchronize local production and consumption.
Bu çalışmanın amacı yenilenebilir enerjide uygulanan vergisel teşviklerin seçilmiş ülke uygulamaları ışığında değerlendirilmesidir. Literatüre dayalı ele alınan çalışmada, ilk olarak yenilenebilir enerji ile ilgili teşvikler üzerinde durulmuş, ardından yenilenebilir enerji teşvikleri açısından seçilmiş ülke [Almanya, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri (ABD), Çin, Japonya, İngiltere, Hindistan, Norveç ve Avrupa Birliği (AB) genel] uygulamalarına ve Türkiye ile karşılaştırılmasına yer verilmiştir. Potansiyel farklılık yanında teknolojik imkân ve kabiliyetler ve ayrıca maliyet yapısındaki farklılıklardan ötürü yenilenebilir enerji kaynakları için tek bir teşvik türü arzu edilen gelişimi sağlayamamaktadır. Bunun için ülkeler, tek bir teşvik türü yerine birden fazla teşvik ve destek türlerini birlikte kullana-bilmektedir. Türkiye’nin ulusal düzeyde yenilenebilir enerji hedefi olan ve bu hedefini revize eden bir ülke olarak diğer ülkelerle benzer konumda olduğu ve tarife farklılığı ile birlikte sabit fiyat garantisi uygulanmasında ABD ve Norveç hariç diğer ülkelerle paralel şekilde ulusal düzeyde politika yürüttüğü ifade edilebilir. Bununla birlikte, diğer ülkeler-deki yatırım ve üretim vergi teşvikleri gibi mali teşvik kapsamında bulunan uygulamalara yer verilmesi Türkiye açısından faydalı olabilir.
This chapter describes what Kingdon calls the ‘problem stream’. The chapter sets out the debate surrounding the connected issues of ‘energy’ and ‘climate’ topics and outline the issues vying for European policymakers’ attention in the year or so leading up to the European Commission’s 2014 Communication on the Energy and Climate Framework for 2030. The conceivable list of potential problems relevant to the policy area may be extremely large but the list that actually receives attention is necessarily much shorter. The chapter focusses on problems of energy supply, environmental sustainability and the cost of energy.
Die Koexistenz von Zertifikatemä fü grü Strom und CO2-Emissionen-wer gewinnt und wer verliert? HWWA discussion paper
W Brä
M Stronzik
Brä W, Stronzik M, Michaelowa A. Die Koexistenz von Zertifikatemä fü grü Strom und CO2-Emissionen-wer gewinnt und wer verliert? HWWA discussion paper 2000;96:1–21.
Ein umweltpolitisches Instrument auf liberalisierten Elektrizita ¨tsma ¨rkten

Draft J. Renewable electricity generation quota model. An environmental policy instrument on liberalised electricity markets. Monk 2001.

International Energy Agency. Energy Prices and Taxes. Quarterly Statistics. First Quarter 1998. Paris: OECD, 1998.

Quota system for renewable energy and certificate trading on the Dutch electricity market

Drillisch J, Riechmann C. Renewable Energy Quota Scheme and Certificate Trading on the Dutch electricity market. Newspaper on energy economic1998.4:247-63.

Environment and energy indicators: supply, transformation, consumption-renewables (hydro, wind, photovoltaic) annual data

The electricity crisis in Brazil was alternative energies. Financial Times Germany 26.06

Colitt R. Electricity crisis in Brazil represented alternative energies. Financial Times Germany 26.06.2001: 15.

Europe plans trading in greenness

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Crookall-Fallon C, Crozier-Cole T. Europe plans trading in greenness. Environmental Finance 2002;10: 17-19.

Renewable energies in the liberalised market

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Groscurth HM, Beeck H, Zisler S. Renewable energies in the liberalised market. Electricity 2000;24:26-32.

France accepts the total lib e l of the reader

Leparmentier A. La France accepts the total lib e l of the reader for 2007. Le Monde 27.01.2002: 20-21.

The diffusion of feed-in and quota models: competition of models in Europe

Busch po. The diffusion of feed-in and quota models: competition of models in Europe. In: Research Centre on Environmental Policy of FU Berlin, FFU report. Ludwigsburg; 2003, pp. 52.

Germany’s EEG goes global

G.S. Germany’s EEG goes global. New Energy 2001;2:36-8.

Renewable Energy Quota Scheme and Lower Electricity Certificate Trading

Drillisch J, Riechmann C. Renewable Energy Quota Scheme and Lower Electricity Certificate Trading. Magazine for Energy Economics 1998;4:247-63.

The European Renewable Electricity Certificate Trading Project (RECerT) Task 1.2 Country Reviews

Energy Planning for the Integration of Wind Energy in Germany on Land and Offshore into the Electricity Grid

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DENA-German Energy Agency. Energy Planning for the Integration of Wind Energy in Germany on Land and Offshore into the Electricity Grid. Berlin 2005.

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Directive 96/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 December concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity

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Deregulation and competition in electricity An examination of the political economy of liberalisation in international comparison

Bonde B. Deregulation and competition in electricity. A study of the political economy of liberalization in international comparison. Peter Lang: Frankfurt a. M; 2002. M. Ringel / Renewable Energy 31 (2006) 1-17

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Fees E. Environment and Environmental Policy, 2nd. edition. Mu; 1998.

Market concentration in electricity generation in Europe

Matthes FC, Poetzsch, S. Market concentration in electricity generation in Europe, 1996-2002, An empirical analysis. Berlin, Darmstadt, Freiburg, 2002.

Case study of EU member states: Spain Handbook of renewable energies in the European Union. Berlin: Case Studies of all Member States

Dinica V. Case study of EU member states: Spain. In: Rich D, editor. Handbook of renewable energies in the European Union. Berlin: Case Studies of all Member States; 2002. p. 211-26.

The Swedish electricity market: current issues, in: International association for energy economics newsletter

Bergman L. The Swedish electricity market: current issues, in: International Association for Energy Economis newsletter 2002, 4, 20-21.

European energy policy challenges are just beginning

Eichhammer W, Jochem E. Europe energy policy challenges are just beginning. Energy-related issues 2001;3:100-5.

Renewable electricity quota system

Threshold J. Renewable electricity quota scheme. Magazine for Energy Economics 1999.4: 251-74.

Economic policy options for renewable energy in the liberalised European energy market. Diploma at the University of Graz

Close M. Economic policy options for renewable energy in the liberalised European energy market. Diploma at the University of Graz. Game, 2000.

Electricity from renewable energy sources and the internal market in electricity. Commission working document

Europa ¨ische Kommission. Elektrizita ¨t aus erneuerbaren Energietra ¨gern und der Elektrizita ¨tsbinnenmarkt. Arbeitsdokument der Kommission. SEK 1999. 470 endg. Brussels.
Die Liberalisierung des Marktes fü Elektrizitä in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und ihre o ¨kologischen Folgen
Schlesinger D. Die Liberalisierung des Marktes fü Elektrizitä in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und ihre o ¨kologischen Folgen, Mannheim 1999.
In 1996, the Dutch distribution companies signed a voluntary agreement to reduce CO sub align="right" 2 /sub emissions. As one element of the agreement, a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) for the electricity distribution companies with certificates trading was introduced (groen label system). The analysis reveals that the total volume of the obligation (3%) can be considered as modest. In addition, it seems more appropriate to replace the distribution companies’ current monopoly for the issuing of the certificates by an independent institution. A flexibility mechanism (e.g., a certificates’ banking system), which prevents high volatilities in the certificates’ market price, and a clear sanction mechanism are needed. A drawback of the current Dutch system is the discriminatory financing of the RPS, which is only provided by MAP tariff customers. Nevertheless, the Dutch RPS may induce an efficient allocation of financial means to support renewable energies. It provides valuable experiences in the functioning of the new system, from which other countries may gain.
The reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is an important goal in the energy and environmental policies of the European Union (EU) and its member states. According to a recent directive-proposal from the EU-commission, the inclusion of renewable technologies is one of the important ways to achieve this emission reduction. More policy instruments are on hand to pursue this objective. Frequently discussed currently is the establishing of a market for tradable permits for CO2-emissions to achieve emission reductions in the power industry. In parallel with this is the introduction of a green certificate market to promote the development of renewables. If these two instruments are brought into play at the same time, two separate markets with two individual targets will co-exist in a number of countries. With a focus on the green certificate market, this paper discusses how these two markets may interact with each other in international trade. Three different cases are analysed: (1) A green certificate market without any tradable permits scheme, (2) a green certificate market in combination with a tradable permits scheme, based on grandfathering and, finally, (3) a green certificate market in combination with a tradable permits bidding scheme. Emphasis is placed on analysing the pricing mechanisms in international trade at the green certificate and tradable permits market in relation to the value of the reductions in GHG-emissions actually achieved. The influence of the permits scheme on the spot market price of electricity is shown, and the benefits of trading green certificates compared to a domestic implementation of renewable technologies are discussed. The main conclusion is that only if a green certificate market is combined with a tradable permit scheme based on a bidding procedure will trade in certificates be equivalent to the domestic development of renewables. Using the bidding system no other country will have to pay for CO2-reductions in the home country of the renewable development, as would otherwise be the case if a tradable permit system based on grandfathering were introduced or – even worse – if no tradable permits were introduced at all. Finally, it must be stated that even if the green certificate market were introduced alongside with a tradable permit bidding system, there still would be no incentives for international certificate trade on account of the need for GHG-reductions. In the version of the green certificate market discussed in this paper no GHG-credits are attached to certificates. This means that the development of renewables will add to GHG-reductions only in those countries, where the plants are established, no matter what kind of tradable permit scheme is adopted.
Thesis (doctoral)–Universität, Köln, 2001.

International climate change policy has come to a relative standstill with most of the countries being discouraged by the high costs of actively pursued climate policy measures. However, climate change policy offers ancillary benefits for proactive stakeholders like the European Union, in addition to the main benefit of mitigating climate change. This article takes a closer look at ancillary benefits the EU hopes to retrieve from its active climate change policy in the field of energy policy. The analysis is limited to the electricity sector, in which the highest potentials for emission abatement can be expected. It shows that most reduction potentials can be realised by using win-win measures, supporting aims of both climate change and energy policies. Generalising this finding, this review points out that ancillary benefits should be emphasised more than before as an incentive for an actively pursued global environmental policy.
Worldwide, some two billion people live without access to modern energy supply. About 1.6 billion people live without access to electricity. Alleviating this "energy poverty" is a factor in reaching most of the UN’s millennium goals. In our contribution to the debate on how to achieve this aim, we discuss the nexus between energy and poverty in developing countries. In order to deal with all aspects of energy poverty, the potential to mitigate the lack of energy supply in developing countries is systemised and discussed along the value chain of energy services. It becomes obvious that, at each stage of the chain, the potential to fight energy poverty effectively does exist. The example of India is used in order to highlight the energy-poverty nexus and clarify potentials to overcome the vicious circle of energy-poverty. Finally, we draw conclusions about future needs to tackle the energy-poverty problem.
The paper provides details on green certificate systems in Belgium. The Flemish region has established a system and the Walloon region is preparing a slightly different one. The lack of uniformity and consequently of transparency in one country emphasises the need for more EU leadership in the field. The main part of the article analyses the established Flemish system. Green certificates are complementary to other instruments that promote renewable electricity, e.g. direct subventions on the feed-in price of green electricity or direct subventions on capital investments. Certificates execute a forcing effect on the actual development of green power if the imposed shares of green power in total sales are significant and if the fine level is at the height to enforce the quota. If the fine is too low the incentive effect turns into a financing tax effect. When the green certificate system does the job it is designed for, i.e. operating at the edge of the RES-E development and organise the transition from a non-sustainable to a sustainable power system, certificate prices will be high and reduce end-use consumption of electricity. A segmentation of the RES-E sector along the various RES-E technologies is a necessity to keep any certificate system affordable, effective and efficient. One can segment the tradable certificate market or one can assign a different number of certificates to a different RES-E technology project. Both solutions require an intensive follow-up of cost structures and of other policy measures (subventions), but given the infant state of understanding and experience segmenting markets may be best in the nearby years.

Six years after the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in December 1997, most countries of the international community are still a long way from the climate protection objectives agreed at the time. In 2001, greenhouse gas emissions in OECD countries that had promised to reduce emissions in the Kyoto Protocol up to the 2008-2012 period (so-called Annex II countries) were well above the level of 1990. Only in the countries of transition in Central and Eastern Europe did emissions fall significantly, but mainly as a result of the profound economic recession, but certainly not because of special climate protection efforts. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which are by far the most important greenhouse gas, are expected to have risen by almost four% compared to the previous year, according to preliminary estimates in 2002. With more than 9% they have increased particularly strongly in developing countries. Overall, CO2 emissions in the 2002 years would have been approximately one fifth higher than 1990’s. With the adoption of a directive on emissions trading, the EU has strengthened its pioneering role in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and has obliged the Member States to submit a binding allocation plan for achieving the reduction targets adopted under the European burden sharing scheme. However, given that in most EU Member States the current level of emissions is still very far from the agreed targets, there are doubts as to whether the targets have been met. Germany, on the other hand, has already come very close to its international commitment. Continuing climate protection efforts and including emissions trading, it should be possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 2010 by the promised 21%. […]


How to prevent cyber injections.

SQL injection is one of the major cyber attacks among several cyber attacks. The SQL injection attack has been observed since around 2005, and has been increasing since 1919. How many companies and credit card information have been leaked by major companies in the form of leaking SQL injections, and what can be done with the SQL injection that cannot be overlooked by companies with many personal information such as customers and trading companies, and how to deal with them I’ll explain how I should be.

Table of contents

  • What is SQL injection?

What is SQL injection?

  • A web application that has been introduced as a system is introduced to the latest version

How to prevent SQL injection

  • Develop secure web applications
  • It is the latest version of the web application introduced as a system such as the CMS such as WordPress
  • Monitoring web site access
  • Introducing WAF
  • Personal information leaked by SQL injection attacks

Personal information leaked after SQL injection attacks

  • History of SQL injection attacks
  • Sales of up to 130000 customers in SQL injection attacks
  • Cloud type web

Cloud type web

What is SQL injection?

How to prevent SQL injection

  • Develop secure web applications
  • It is the latest version of the web application introduced as a system such as the CMS such as WordPress
  • Monitoring web site access
  • Introducing WAF

Personal information leaked after SQL injection attacks

  • History of SQL injection attacks
  • Sales of up to 130000 customers in SQL injection attacks

Cloud type web

What is SQL injection?

SQL injection is one of the cyber attacks that pierce web application vulnerabilities. The web application is processed by the server side by receiving various information input from the user, and the result is returned to the user. The server handles access to servers and databases, and references and updates information. In this processing process, a web application does not handle the information even if unexpected information is input from the user, and it is necessary to perform the error processing correctly.

However, if there is any imperfection in this process, the attacker will receive the information that contains the command to do the database processing called SQL, and then the server will handle the content of the attacker, so that the SQL will be executed as the attacker’s Thought on the server. This allows an attacker to execute an illegal SQL attack, such as leakage of important information in the database and tampering content.

In the case of altering content done by SQL injection, a program (script) is written to the web browser to attempt malware intrusion. Figure shows the attack mechanism.

The attacker attacks the database through the web server. An invalid script is executed by typing an SQL statement that changes the database to the item that the user of the application on the web server can input. Although the input value is invalid, the application will normally handle it, so the log in the web server will be a normal exit status, so you won’t know the wrong behavior unless you see the web server log in detail. It is therefore difficult to detect malicious behavior only by logging on a web server. When you browse at this stage, the content that an illegal script runs on the Internet is exposed to the web server. (3) when the user inspects the content of the target web server in this state, an illegal script is executed on the user terminal. (4)

Because it is not the same as the site that is usually visited for the user, it is not advised carefully. Therefore, there is a possibility that it is infected with malware without knowing if it is detected by the anti-virus software. Since the user’s way of dealing with it is only to use antivirus software, the service provider must do so to prevent SQL injection. So, what kind of measures should the service provider do?

How to prevent SQL injection

There are four ways to prevent SQL injection.

Develop secure web applications

It is the latest version of the web application introduced as a system such as the CMS such as WordPress

A typical WordPress as a content management system (CMS) is presented with a vulnerability found periodically and a version of the security patch applied. There is also a vulnerability that causes SQL injections, so you will need to make quick updates when a security update is released. In order to respond quickly, we will gather information positively.

Monitoring web site access

In order to minimize damage even if a cyber attack occurs, monitor access to the web site and keep the normal access state. On the other hand, if SQL injection occurs, the access state is often different, so it is possible to notice abnormality. If you do so, you will be able to take care of the web site.

Introducing WAF

Introducing a web application firewall can prevent SQL injection attacks. There are three types of this product: appliance type, software type, and cloud type. Recently, cloud type WAFS are paid attention. This is because there is Merritt, a flexible plan contract that requires no expertise, professionals, no infrastructure procurement, and low initial cost and operating costs. On the other hand, there is a disadvantage that the performance as a WAF depends on the quality of the service provider, so it is necessary to note that the user must carefully select the service provider.

Because SQL injection may cause personal information to leak or promote virus infection, the service provider will develop applications that do not allow SQL injection attacks. Users should not forget to install antivirus software for the worst and keep the software up to date.

Personal information leaked after SQL injection attacks

Up to now, the mechanism and the countermeasure of SQL injection are explained. So what kind of damage caused by SQL injection? Here are some examples of damage caused by SQL injection attacks.

History of SQL injection attacks

Sales of up to 130000 customers in SQL injection attacks

In modern society, much information is stored on the net. The stored information is stolen in case of theft.

In February 2017, the Nikkei eye’s web server of the Japan sales group received unauthorized access, and it was found that personal information of customers such as credit card information was leaking. From December 23 to 27, 2016, the client injection of the SQL server, which exploded the vulnerability of the web server, leaked 12536 cases of customer information by the company’s club club and magdeli. Most of the outflow information was the email address and ID of the member, but credit card information such as about 30 card name and card number also flowed simultaneously. Reference: "sqli attack" leaks up to 130000 customer information

This time, it introduces the famous cyber injection, the SQL injection, the technique and the damage case. It is possible to monitor the log of the web server after the SQL injection attack countermeasure, and to check whether it is damaged or not, and to minimize the damage in any case. Because the damage such as personal information leakage is directly connected to the management problem such as the profit loss of the enterprise and the credit fall, security measures are urgent for the web site operator. Please review the security measures of the web site for this opportunity and consider the introduction of the WAF.

How to make a secure website

Cloud type web

When selecting a WAF, let’s focus on the support system and the introduction results, and choose the best thing for the company.

There are many choices of cloud type WAF, but there is "attack interception break" which is recommended as an easy to introduce. It is possible to introduce it in the shortest next business day for the necessity of the system change, and it is necessary to operate at the user side, and it is possible to realize the low price and easy security easily.

You can download the detailed data of the attack interception.

(2017 / 12 / 14, 2019 / 12 / 19)


Everything you wanted to know about SQL injection (but …

Put on your black hats folks, it’s time to learn some genuinely interesting things about SQL injection. Now remember – y’all play nice with the bits and pieces you’re about to read, ok?
SQL injection is a particularly interesting risk for a few different reasons:
It’s getting increasingly harder to write vulnerable code due to frameworks that automatically parameterise inputs – yet we still write bad code.
You’re not necessarily in the clear just because you use stored procedures or a shiny ORM (you’re aware that SQLi can still get through these, right?) – we still build vulnerable apps around these mitigations.
It’s easily detected remotely by automated tools which can be orchestrated to crawl the web searching for vulnerable sites – yet we’re still putting them out there.
All your datas are belong to us (if we can break into the query context)
Let’s do a quick recap on what it is that makes SQLi possible. In a nutshell, it’s about breaking out of the data context and entering the query context. Let me visualise this for you; say you have URL that includes a query string parameter such as “id=1” and that parameter makes its way down into a SQL query such as this:
The entire URL probably looked something like this:
Pretty basic stuff, where it starts to get interesting is when you can manipulate the data in the URL such that it changes the value passed to the query. Ok, changing “1” to “2” will give you a different widget and that’s to be expected, but what if you did this:
That might then persist through to the database server like so:
This is the essence of SQL injection – manipulating query execution with untrusted data – and it happens when developers do things like this:
query = "SELECT * FROM Widget WHERE ID = "+ Request.QueryString["ID"];// Execute the query…
Ok, so that background covers how to demonstrate that a risk is present, but what can you now do with it? Let’s start exploring some common injection patterns.
Joining the dots: Union query-based injection
Let’s take an example where we expect a set of records to be returned to the page, in this case it’s a list of widgets of “TypeId” 1 on a URL like this:
The result on the page then looks like so:
We’d expect that query to look something like this once it hits the database:
But if we can apply what I’ve outlined above, namely that we might be able to just append SQL to the data in the query string, we might be able to do something like this:
Which would then create a SQL query like so:
Now keep in mind that the sysobjects table is the one that lists all the objects in the database and in this case we’re filtering that list by xtype “u” or in other words, user tables. When an injection risk is present that would mean the following output:
SQL Server gets a bit uppity if the table name of “user” is not enclosed in square brackets given the word has other meanings in the DB sense. Regardless, here’s what that gives us:
We could go on and on down this path and pull back all sorts of other data, let’s move on to the next attack though. There are times when a union-based attack isn’t going to play ball either due to sanitisation of the input or how the data is appended to the query or even how the result set is displayed to the page. To get around that we’re going to need to get a bit more creative.
Making the app squeal: Error-based injection
Let’s try another pattern – what if we did this:
Hang on, that’s not valid SQL syntax, the “x=1” piece won’t compute, at least not unless there’s a column called “x” so won’t it just throw an exception? Precisely, in fact it means you’ll see an exception like this:
This an ASP.NET error and other frameworks have similar paradigms but the important thing is that the error message is disclosing information about the internal implementation, namely that there is no column called “x”. Why is this important? It’s fundamentally important because once you establish that an app is leaking SQL exceptions, you can do things like this:
That’s a lot to absorb and I’ll come back to it in more detail, the important thing is though that it will yield this result in the browser:
And there we have it, we’ve now discovered that there is a table in the database called “Widget”. You’ll often see this referred to as “Error-based SQL injection” due to the dependency on internal errors. Let’s deconstruct the query from the URL:

Working from the deepest nesting up, get the first record ID from the sysobjects table after ordering by ID. From that collection, get the last ID (this is why it orders in descending) and pass that into the top select statement. That top statement is then only going to take the table name and try to convert it to an integer. The conversion to integer will almost certainly fail (please people, don’t name your tables “1” or “2” or any other integer for that matter!) and that exception then discloses the table name in the UI.
Why three select statements? Because it means we can go into that innermost one and change “top 1” to “top 2” which then gives us this result:
Now we know that there’s a table called “User” in the database. Using this approach we can discover all the column names of each table (just apply the same logic to the syscolumns table). We can then extend that logic even further to select data from table columns:
In the screen above, I’d already been able to discover that there was a table called “User” and a column called “Password”, all I needed to do was select out of that table (and again, you can enumerate through all records one by one with nested select statements), and cause an exception by attempting to convert the string to an int (you can always append an alpha char to the data if it really is an int then attempt to convert the whole lot to an int which will cause an exception). If you want to get a sense of just how easy this can be, I recorded a little video last year where I teach my 3 year old to automate this with Havij which uses the technique.
But there’s a problem with all this – it was only possible because the app was a bit naughty and exposed internal error messages to the general public. In fact the app quite literally told us the names of the tables and columns and then disclosed the data when we asked the right questions, but what happens when it doesn’t? I mean what happens when the app is correctly configured so as not to leak the details of internal exceptions?
This is where we get into “blind” SQL injection which is the genuinely interesting stuff.
Hacking blind
In the examples above (and indeed in many precedents of successful injection attacks), the attacks are dependent on the vulnerable app explicitly disclosing internal details either by joining tables and returning the data to the UI or by raising exceptions that bubble up to the browser. Leaking of internal implementations is always a bad thing and as you saw earlier, security misconfigurations such as this can be leveraged to disclose more than just the application structure, you can actually pull data out through this channel as well.
A correctly configured app should return a message more akin to this one here when an unhandled exception occurs:
Blind SQLi relies on us getting a lot more implicit or in other words, drawing our conclusions based on other observations we can make about the behaviour of the app that aren’t quite as direct as telling us table names or showing column data directly in the browser by way of unions or unhandled exceptions. Of course this now begs the question – how can we make the app behave in an observable fashion such that it discloses the information we had earlier without explicitly telling us?
We’re going to look at two approaches here: boolean-based and time-based.
Ask, and you shall be told: Boolean-based injection
This all comes down to asking the right questions of the app. Earlier on, we could explicitly ask questions such as “What tables do you have” or “What columns do you have in each table” and the database would explicitly tell us. Now we need to ask a little bit differently, for example like this:
Clearly this equivalency test can never be true – one will never be equal to two. How an app at risk of injection responds to this request is the cornerstone of blind SQLi and it can happen in one of two different ways.
Firstly, it might just throw an exception if no record is returned. Often developers will assume that a record referred to in a query string exists because it’s usually the app itself that has provided the link based on pulling it out of the database on another page. When there’s no record returned, things break. Secondly, the app might not throw an exception but then it also won’t display a record either because the equivalency is false. Either way, the app is implicitly telling us that no records were returned from the database.
Now let’s try this:
Now all of that only gives us the first character of the table name from sysobjects, when you want the second character then the substring statement needs to progress to the next position:

You can see it now starts at position 2 rather than position 1. Of course this is laborious; as well as enumerating through all the tables in sysobjects you end up enumerating through all the possible letters of the alphabet until you get a hit then you have to repeat the process for each character of the table name. There is, however, a little shortcut that looks like this:
For example, if greater than 109 then it must be between “n” and “z” so you split that (roughly) in half and go greater than 115. If that’s false then it must be between “n” and “s” so you split that bang in half and go greater than 112. That’s true so there’s only three chars left which you can narrow down to one in a max of two guesses. Bottom line is that the max of 26 guesses (call it average of 13) is now done in only 5 as you simply just keep halving the result set.
By constructing the right requests the app will still tell you everything it previously did in that very explicit, rich error message way, it’s just that it’s now being a little coy and you have to coax the answers out of it. This is frequently referred to as “Boolean-based” SQL injection and it works well where the previously demonstrated “Union-based” and “Error-based” approaches won’t fly. But it’s also not fool proof; let’s take a look at one more approach and this time we’re going to need to be a little more patient.
Disclosure through patience: Time-based blind injection
Everything to date has worked on the presumption that the app will disclose information via the HTML output. In the earlier examples the union-based and error-based approaches gave us data in the browser that explicitly told us object names and disclosed internal data. In the blind boolean-based examples we were implicitly told the same information by virtue of the HTML response being different based on a true versus a false equivalency test. But what happens when this information can’t be leaked via the HTML either explicitly or implicitly?
Let’s imagine another attack vector using this URL:
In this case it’s pretty fair to assume that the query will translate through to something like this:
Clearly we can’t just starting adding conditions directly into the ORDER BY clause (although there are other angles from which you could mount a boolean-based attack), so we need to try another approach. A common technique with SQLi is to terminate a statement and then append a subsequent one, for example like this:
That’s a pretty innocuous one (although certainly discovering the database name can be useful), a more destructive approach would be to do something like “DROP TABLE Widget”. Of course the account the web app is connecting to the database with needs the rights to be able to do this, the point is that once you can start chaining together queries then the potential really starts to open up.
Getting back to blind SQLi though, what we need to do now is find another way to do the earlier boolean-based tests using a subsequent statement and the way we can do that is to introduce is a delay using the WAITFOR DELAY syntax. Try this on for size:
This is only really a slight variation of the earlier examples in that rather than changing the number of records returned by manipulating the WHERE clause, it’s now just a totally new statement that looks for the presence of a table at the end of sysobjects beginning with a letter greater than “m” and if it exists, the query then takes a little nap for 5 seconds. We’d still need to narrow down the ASCII character range and we’d still need to move through each character of the table name and we’d still need to look at other tables in sysobjects (plus of course then look at syscolumns and then actually pull data out), but all of that is entirely possible with a bit of time. 5 seconds may be longer than needed or it may not be long enough, it all comes down to how consistent the response times from the app are because ultimately this is all designed to manipulate the observable behaviour which is how long it takes between making a request and receiving a response.
This attack – as with all the previous ones – could, of course, be entirely automated as it’s nothing more than simple enumerations and conditional logic. Of course it could end up taking a while but that’s a relative term; if a normal request takes 1 second and half of the 5 attempts required to find the right character return true then you’re looking at 17.5 seconds per character, say 10 chars in an average table name is about 3 minutes a table then maybe 20 tables in a DB so call it one hour and you’ve discovered every table name in the system. And that’s if you’re doing all this in a single-threaded fashion.
It doesn’t end there…

This is one of those topics with a heap of different angles, not least of which is because there are so many different combinations of database, app framework and web server not to mention a whole gamut of defences such as web application firewalls. An example of where things can get tricky is if you need to resort to a time-based attack yet the database doesn’t support a delay feature, for example an Access database (yes, some people actually do put these behind websites!) One approach here is to use what’s referred to as heavy queries or in other words, queries which by their very nature will cause a response to be slow.
In this case, error-based injection will give tell you exactly what type the “InStock” column is when the error bubbles up to the UI (and no error will mean it’s numeric):
Or once you’re totally fed up with the very presence of that damned vulnerable site still being up there on the web, a bit of this:
Perhaps SQLi is not quite as well understood as some people think.


0708 RDP rce vulnerability recurrence (20190907

Previously, RDP rce (cve-2019-0708) collection 20190907 MSF updated the exp of cve-2019-0708, which vibrated instantly. After testing, the exp is available under specific conditions.

Target:0 Automatic targeting via fingerprinting1 Windows 7 SP1 / 2008 R2 (6.1.7601 x64)2 Windows 7 SP1 / 2008 R2 (6.1.7601 x64 – Virtualbox)3 Windows 7 SP1 / 2008 R2 (6.1.7601 x64 – VMWare)4 Windows 7 SP1 / 2008 R2 (6.1.7601 x64 – Hyper-V)

1. Environment: msf5.0.46dev, vm12.5.7, NAT, win7 flagship x64 sp1-7601 (CN ~ windows ~ ultimate with ~ SP1 ~ x64; DVD. ISO) open 3389, reload ~ all the modified four RB files, target 2.

Note: 2008r2withsp1 English standard needs to modify the value of the registry to 0. Restart the target once or it may fail. Windows 2008 R2 is said to have many blue screens Update MSF to the latest. Lower the number of cores, such as 2 cores 2G / 1 cores 1g (multi core competition?) Turn off automatic update to prevent automatic patching from affecting the test.

At present, if the exp is to be used successfully, there are too many restrictions, such as operating system version number, platform, security equipment and many other factors, which may affect the actual success rate. However, this is a big leap, and it is expected that there will be more perfect exp in the near future. Worms are pressing